Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, ed. George Breitman (New York: Grove Press, 1969).
Malcolm X and Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcom X (New York: Ballantine, 1992).
Peniel E. Joseph, The Sword and the Shield (New York: Basic Books, 2020).
Les Payne and Tamara Payne, The Dead Are Arising: The Life of Malcolm X (New York: W.W. Norton, 2020).
Les Payne, “The Night I Stopped Being a Negro,” in When Race Becomes Real : Black and White Writers Confront Their Personal Histories, ed. Bernestine Singley (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2008).
Robin D.G. Kelley, “House Negroes on the Loose: Malcolm X and the Black Bourgeoisie,” Callaloo 21, no. 2 (1998):419-435.