Primary Texts:

Aimé Césaire, “Poésie et connaissance,” in Tropiques. Revue Culturelle, No. 12 (Janvier 1945)

Aimé Césaire, “And the Dogs Were Silent,” in Lyric and Dramatic Poetry, 1946-82, trans. Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith (UVA Press, 19990); translation of Et les chiens se taisaient (lyrical tragedy written in 1946 and published in 1958)


Secondary Texts:

Souleymane Bachir Diagne, “Senghor et la Revolution de 1889,” The Romanic Review, Vol. 100, No. 1-2 (January-March 2009)

Souleymane Bachir Diagne, “Introduction,” to Aimé Césaire, A Season in the Congo, trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (University of Chicago Press, 2005)

Donna V. Jones, The Racial Discourses of Life Philosophy: Négritude, Vitalism, and Modernity (Columbia University Press, 2010)

Gary Wilder, The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude and Colonial Humanism Between the Two World Wars (Chicago University Press, 2005)

Babette Babich, “Future Philology! by Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff – Translated by G. Postl, B. Babich, and H. Schmid,” (2000). Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections. Paper 3.

H. Groth, “Wilamowitz-Möllendorf on Nietzsche’s Birth of Tragedy,” Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Apr., 1950), pp. 179-190