Independent Agencies

The independent (administrative) agencies, here is their list, differ from departments. First, their scope is more limited in substance. Second, at least theoretically, they are intended to be temporary Administrative agencies are the result of an ever-expanding government that tries to represent as many interests as possible. Their role is to deal with a complex existing or rising social and economic problems. As a result, often, they both issue binding rules of general application and solve particular disputes within their jurisdiction.

In light of their purpose, administrative agencies are authorized to implement their enabling statute or presidential order. Accordingly, they issue rules and regulations, and sometimes even solve disputes that arise within their jurisdiction. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) acts under several enabling statutes. Its lawmaking functions include both adopting rules and regulations, which further detail environmental statutes, and initiating litigation to promote the statutory standards established by those statutes, such as those provided by the Clean Air Act of 1955 and Safe Drinking Water Act of 1978. The creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was enabled by the Federal Trade Commission Act of September 1914. Its purpose is to promote fair competition in the economy, by instituting anti-trust cases and intervening in consumer and business affairs.

Early in the 20th century, if big business necessitated the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), then “burgeoning labor and its troubles with business resulted in the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).”

The NLRB was created by the National Labor Relations Act of 1935.It is among the most important administrative agencies “not only because of its widespread effect on administrative law, but also because of its major role in making and implementing national labor policy.”32 Finally, another major agency is the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which was created by the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, out of a national need to curb fraudulent stock and investment practices after the Great Crash of 1929.

Similarly, at the state level, the executive branch is in charge of implementing state legislation. Furthermore, the governors, not unlike the President, function as “catalytic agents in the legislative process”by structuring support through interest groups and party leaders for different pieces of legislation within the legislative bodies. Additionally, it should be noted that at the local level too, the executive branch is complemented by state agencies in charge of dealing with existing or rising social and economic problems statewide.